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Pressure vessels on movable structures ■ Cargo or volume tanks for trucks, ships, and barges ■ Air receivers associated with braking systems of mobile equipment. ■ Pressure vessels installed in ocean-going ships, barges, and floating craft b. All classes of containers listed for exemption in the scope of the applicable construction code. Shall contain the inspection tasks and schedule required to monitor damage mechanisms and assure the mechanical integrity of the equipment ■ Type(s) of inspection needed ■ Identify the next inspection date ■ Describe the extent and locations of inspection and NDE ■ Describe the surface cleaning requirements needed for inspection ■ Describe the requirements of any needed pressure test ■ Describe any required repairs OPTIONAL ■ Describing the types of damage anticipated or experienced in the equipment ■ Defining the location of the damage ■ Defining any special access requirements. ■ An inspection performed from the inside of a pressure vessel using visual and /or NDE techniques ■ Shall be performed by inspector accordance with the inspection plan. ■ A primary goal is to find damage that cannot be found by regular monitoring of external CMLs ■ For equipment not designed for entrance by personnel, inspection ports shall be opened for examination of surfaces ■ Inspectors may inspect the non-pressure internals, if requested by other operations personnel, and report current condition to the appropriate operation personnel. ■ A visual inspection performed from the outside of a pressure vessel to find conditions that could impact the vessel's ability ■ Performed by Inspector.
If in-service vessels are covered by requirements in the ASME Code and API 510 or if there is a conflict between the two codes, the requirements of API 510 shall take precedence. As an example of the intent of API 510, the phrase applicable requirements of the ASME Code has been used in API 510 instead of the phrase in accordance with the ASME.
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- However, any accommodation required can be arranged by Haward Technology at the time of booking. Required Codes & Standards Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for June 7, 2006 API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspector Certification Examination. June 1997, Addenda 1, 2, 3 and 4 (August 2003). Global Engineering.
Qualified personnel may conduct when acceptable to inspector and shall have appropriated training ■ Any signs of leakage should be investigated so that the sources can be established. ■ Vessels shall be examined for visual indications of bulging, out-of-roundness, sagging, and distortion. ■ Any personnel who observe vessel deterioration should report the condition to the inspector. Shall be monitored by performing a representative number of examinations at CMLs to satisfy the requirements for an internal or on-stream inspection b. Corrosion rates, the remaining life and next inspection intervals should be calculated to determine the limiting component. The rate of corrosion/damage shall be determined from successive measurements and the next inspection interval appropriately established. Where thickness measurements are obtained at CMLs, the minimum thickness at a CML can be located by ultrasonic measurements or radiography.
The thinnest reading or an average of several measurement readings taken within the area of an examination point shall be recorded and used to calculate the corrosion rates. Examination points should be permanently recorded to allow repetitive measurements at the same CMLs.
Repeating measurements at the same location improves accuracy of the calculated damage rate. A close visual inspection of pressure vessel components should not be performed until the vessel pressure is at or below the MAWP. The pressure-relieving device(s) should be removed when test that will conducted exceed the pressure test 3. Test clamps can be used to hold down the valve disks. Applying an additional load to the valve spring by turning the compression screw is prohibited 5. When the pressure test has been completed, pressure-relieving devices and appurtenances removed or made inoperable during the pressure test shall be reinstalled or reactivated.
All repair and alteration work must be authorized by the inspector before the work is started by a repair organization. Alterations to pressure vessels that comply with ASME should an engineer has also authorized the work. The inspector will designate the hold points that are required. The inspector may give prior general authorization for limited or routine repairs on a specific vessel provided the inspector is satisfied with the competency of the repair organization and the repairs are the kind that will not require a pressure test. The fillet-welded patches provide design safety equivalent to reinforced openings designed according to the applicable construction code. The fillet-welded patches are designed to absorb the membrane strain of the parts so that in accordance with the rules of the applicable construction code, the following result: 1.
The allowable membrane stress is not exceeded in the vessel parts or the patches. The strain in the patches does not result in fillet-weld stresses that exceed allowable stresses for such welds. The design is approved and documented by the engineer and inspector. The repair is not covering a crack in the vessel shell. The band is designed to contain the full vessel design pressure. All longitudinal seams in the repair band are full penetration butt welds with the design joint efficiency and inspection consistent with the appropriate code. The circumferential fillet welds attaching the band to the vessel shell are designed to transfer the full longitudinal load in the vessel shell, using a joint efficiency of 0.45.
Where significant, the eccentricity effects of the band relative to the original shell shall be considered in sizing the band attachment welds. Appropriate surface NDE shall be conducted on all attachment welds.
Fatigue of the attachment welds, such as fatigue resulting from differential expansion of the band relative to the vessel shell, should be considered, if applicable. The band material and weld metal are suitable for contact with the contained fluid at the design conditions and an appropriate corrosion allowance is provided in the band.
The damage mechanism leading to the need for repair shall be considered in determining the need for any additional monitoring and future inspection of the repair. Full-penetration groove welds are provided b.
The welds are radiographed in accordance with the applicable construction code. Ultrasonic examination, by an industry-qualified UT shear wave examiner, may be substituted for the radiography if the NDE procedures are approved by the inspector. All insert plate corners that do not extend to an existing longitudinal or horizontal weld shall be rounded having a 1 in. (25mm) minimum radius. Weld proximity to existing welds shall be reviewed by the engineer. The application is reviewed, and a procedure is developed by an engineer experienced in the appropriate engineering specialties. The suitability of the procedure shall be evaluated based on (Base metal thickness, decay thermal gradients, material properties, changes due to local postweld heat treatment, the need for full penetration welds, surface and volumetric examinations after local postweld heat treatment and the overall and local strains and distortions) c.
A preheat of 300ºF (150ºC) or higher, as specified by specific welding procedures, is maintained during welding. The required local postweld heat treatment temperature shall be maintained for a distance of not less than two times the base metal thickness measured from the toe of the weld e.
Controlled heat shall be applied to any nozzle or any attachment within the local postweld heat treatment area. When PWHT is performed for environmental-assisted cracking resistance, a metallurgical review shall be conducted to assess whether the procedure is acceptable. The weld area shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 300°F and should be checked to assure that 4 in. Of the material or 4 times the material thickness (whichever is greater) on each side of the groove is maintained at the minimum temperature during welding.
The maximum interpass temperature shall not exceed 600°F. When the weld does not penetrate through the full thickness of the material, the minimum preheat and maximum interpass temperatures need only be maintained at a distance of 4 in. Or four times the depth of the repair weld, whichever is greater on each side of the joint. Notch toughness testing, such as that established by ASME Code Section VIII: Division 1, parts UG-84 and UCS-66, is necessary when impact tests are required by the original code of construction or the construction code applicable to the work planned. The materials shall be limited to P-No. The welding shall be limited to the shielded-metal-arc welding (SMAW), gas-metal-arc welding (GMAW), and gas-tungstenarc welding (GTAW) processes.
A weld procedure specification shall be developed and qualified for each application. The welding procedure shall define the preheat temperature and interpass temperature and include the post heating temperature requirement in f(8). The qualification thickness for the test plates and repair grooves shall be in accordance with Table 8-1. The test material for the welding procedure qualification shall be of the same material specification (including specification type, grade, class and condition of heat treatment) as the original material specification for the repair.
If the original material specification is obsolete, the test material used should conform as much as possible to the material used for construction, but in no case shall the material be lower in strength or have a carbon content of more than 0.35%. When impact tests are required by the construction code applicable to the work planned, the PQR shall include sufficient tests to determine if the toughness of the weld metal and the heat-affected zone of the base metal in the as-welded condition is adequate at the minimum design metal temperature (such as the criteria used in ASME Code Section VIII: Division I, parts UG-84 and UCS 66). If special hardness limits are necessary (for example, as set forth in NACE RP 0472 and MR 0103) for corrosion resistance, the PQR shall include hardness tests as well. The supplementary essential variables of ASME Code, Section IX, Paragraph QW-250, shall apply. The maximum weld heat input for each layer shall not exceed that used in the procedure qualification test. The minimum preheat temperature for welding shall not be less than that used in the procedure qualification test.
The maximum interpass temperature for welding shall not be greater than that used in the procedure qualification test. The preheat temperature shall be checked to assure that 4 in. (100 mm) of the material or four times the material thickness (whichever is greater) on each side of the weld joint will be maintained at the minimum temperature during welding. When the weld does not penetrate through the full thickness of the material, the minimum preheat temperature need only be maintained at a distance of 4 in. (100 mm) or four times the depth of the repair weld, whichever is greater on each side of the joint. When used SMAW, GTAW and GMAW, electrodes and filler metals that are classified by the filler metal specification with an optional supplemental diffusible-hydrogen designator of H8 or lower. When shielding gases are used with a process, the gas shall exhibit a dew point that is no higher than -60°F (-50°C).
Surfaces on which welding will be done shall be maintained in a dry condition during welding and free of rust, mill scale and hydrogen producing contaminants such as oil, grease and other organic materials. The welding technique shall be a controlled-deposition, temper-bead or half-bead technique. The specific technique shall be used in the procedure qualification test. For welds made by SMAW, after completion of welding and without allowing the weldment to cool below the minimum preheat temperature, the temperature of the weldment shall be raised to a temperature of 500°F ± 50°F for a minimum period of two hours to assist out-gassing diffusion of any weld metal hydrogen picked up during welding. This hydrogen bake-out treatment may be omitted provided the electrode used is classified by the filler metal specification with an optional supplemental diffusible-hydrogen designator of H4 (such as E7018-H4). After the finished repair weld has cooled to ambient temperature, the final temper bead reinforcement layer shall be removed substantially flush with the surface of the base material. Calculations performed by either the manufacturer or an owner/user engineer (or his designated representative) experienced in pressure vessel design, fabrication, or inspection shall justify rerating.
Rerating shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of the vessel's construction code. Current inspection records verify that the pressure vessel is satisfactory for the proposed service conditions and that the corrosion allowance provided is appropriate. An increase in allowable working pressure or design temperature shall be based on thickness data obtained from a recent internal or on-stream inspection. The vessel shall be pressure tested using the applicable testing formula from the code used to perform the rerating calculations unless either of the following is true: 1.
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The pressure vessel has at some time been pressure tested to a test pressure equal to or higher than the test pressure required by the rerate code; and, 2. The vessel integrity is confirmed by special nondestructive evaluation inspection techniques in lieu of testing. The rerating is acceptable to the engineer.
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Trade Associations: American Petroleum Institute.Primary ContactDavid MillerDirector, Standards1220 L Street, NWWashington, DC 20005Phone: 202.682.8000Fax: 202.962.4797Email:Website:Organizational OverviewAPI is the only national trade association that representsall aspects of America’soil and natural gas industry. Our 400 corporate members, from the largest majoroil company to the smallest of independents, come from all segments of theindustry. They are producers, refiners, suppliers, pipeline operators andmarine transporters, as well as service and supply companies that support allsegments of the industry.Wespeak for the petroleum industry to the public, Congress and the ExecutiveBranch, state governments and the media. We negotiate with regulatory agencies,represent the industry in legal proceedings, participate in coalitions and workin partnership with other associations to achieve our members’ public policygoals. Scope of Membership ActivityAPI's members are involved in the Institute's through a variety of mechanisms, most commonly on API's committees. API has three main standards committees with a subordinate committee structure that ensures API standards maintain technical relevance. Scope of ServicesFor more than 75 years, API has led the development of petroleum and petrochemical equipment and operating standards.
These represent the industry’s collective wisdom on everything from drill bits to environmental protection and embrace proven, sound engineering and operating practices and safe, interchangeable equipment and materials. API maintains more than 500 standards and recommended practices. Many have been incorporated into state and federal regulations; and increasingly, they’re also being adopted by the International Organization for Standardization, a global federation of more than 100 standards groups.Each day, the oil and natural gas industry depends on equipment to produce, refine and distribute its products. The equipment used is some of the most technologically advanced available in the search for oil and gas and allows the industry to operate in an environmentally safe manner. Designed for manufacturers of production, drilling, and refinery equipment, the API Monogram Program verifies that manufacturers are operating in compliance with industry standards. API also provides quality, environmental, and occupational health and safety management systems certification through APIQR.
This service is accredited by the ANAB (ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board) for ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. API's Individual Certification Program ensures that industry inspectors are certified to inspect refinery pressure vessels, tanks, and piping in accordance with API's inspection codes and standards.API University provides instructor-led and internet based training for industry around the world. Specific industry InformationAPI’s target industries include the Petroleum and Natural Gas sectors. Standards-related InformationAPI's standards are used worldwide and cover all aspects ofthe oil and natural gas industry. A complete listing may be found at Conformity Assessment-Related InformationAPI's Monogram Certification program is used not only in the U.S.but also worldwide to ensure the availability of manufactured product andmaterial built to API standards.
API'sEngine Oil Licensing Systems verfies that engine oil meets API standards fordurability and engine protection. APIalso offers ISO 9000 and 14000 certification. Technical Regulations-related InformationThe relevant regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over API’s industry sector include:. Minerals Management Service. Bureau of Land Management. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. Department of Transportation.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Quick Links.International Activities by Region.ChinaMr. Chris LanzitSuite 1907, East Tower, Twin TowersB-12 Jianguomenwai AvenueChaoyang District, Beijing 100022Phone: + 6032Email:API's Representative Office in Beijing offers sales, marketing, and customer service to facilitate cooperation and exchange of information between the U.S.
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And Chinese oil and natural gas industries. Additionally, API works with the China Standards and Conformity Assessment (CSCA) office to keep API and other member associations up to date on Chinese standardization and conformity assessment matters, often presenting US positions on these activities to facilitate an improved understanding of both countries' positions on such matters.