Conflict Resolution And Prevention John Burton Pdf Free
EXCERPT FROM MUSALAHA'S A CURRICULUM OF RECONCILIATIONConflict can be most simply defined as disagreement between people. To expand on this a little more, “Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals.”(1) While it naturally occurs due to our interaction with others and as a result of our human subjectivity, what is important is how we deal with the conflict that arises.There have been a number of approaches to conflict, three of which are Conflict Management, Conflict Resolution and Conflict Transformation. Conflict Management is generally discussed with regard to intractable conflicts, and has to do with the way people handle, or manage wrongs done to them. Conflict Management refers to a process that will be undertaken for an indefinite period of time (and may not result in a resolution), and is primarily concerned with containing and limiting the conflict. Conflict Resolution, on the other hand, refers to resolving a conflict in such a way that both parties are satisfied, encouraging them to move from a zero-sum mentality to a win-win situation. It includes a number of methods for improving a situation of conflict, or removing conflict altogether. Under the umbrella of Conflict Resolution, we find negotiation, mediation and diplomacy as Conflict Resolution is often dependent on outside parties coming in to aid in the resolution process.
Finally, Conflict Transformation attempts to change the positions and perceptions of the disagreeing parties while improving their communication, dealing with the reasons for the conflict, and ultimately, transforming conflict peacefully. As one expert put it:Contemporary conflicts require more than the reframing of positions and the identification of win-win outcomes. The very structure of parties and relationships may be embedded in a pattern of conflictual relationships that extend beyond the particular site of conflict. Conflict Transformation is therefore a process of engaging with and transforming the relationships, interests, discourses and, if necessary, the very constitution of society that supports the continuation of violent conflict. (2)Conflict ManagementThere are a number of responses one can have in Conflict Management. Some people react to conflict violently, with war, terrorism, genocide, etc.
There are also non-violent methods of dealing with conflict, which are more common in our daily lives. The five main approaches that we will discuss here are Competing, Avoiding, Accommodating, Compromising, and Collaborating. We are all able to use any of the five approaches, and we all employ a variety of ways to deal with conflict. However, different people tend to use some of the approaches much more than they use others. Sometimes this is a result of a person’s character, or simply a person’s habit.CompetingThe competing approach can be summed up in the statement: “Do it my way or not at all.” Some strategies adopted in this approach are to compete, control, outwit, coerce and fight the other person to achieve your goals. They are impatient with dialogue and information gathering.
The qualities of competitors are authoritarian, and threatened by disagreement; they attempt to maintain the status quo, and react in times of crisis. The competitor has a high concern for his/her personal goals and a very low concern for the relationship with the other person.AvoidingThe avoiding approach can be summed up in the statement: “Conflict? What conflict?” The avoider employs strategies of fleeing, denying, ignoring, withdrawing, delaying, and wishing only to hope and pray. Avoiders prefer to be with other people who will avoid issues as well. They refuse to dialogue or gather information to help deal with conflict. Some characteristics of avoiders include passiveness, timidity, the inclination to moralize, and an aim to weather the storm; they find discussions and group life intrusive, and they are a bit chaotic and unfocused.
Conflict Resolution And Prevention John Burton Pdf Free Download
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People who avoid conflict and Conflict Management have a lose-lose outcome, as the avoider has both a low concern for his or her relationship with the other person, and low personal goals as well. People who engage in this behavior do not know how to resolve conflict or continue in meaningful relationships after conflict occurs.AccommodatingThe accommodating approach can be summed up in the statement: “Whatever you say.” The accommodator uses strategies to agree, appease, or flatter the other person, and prefers to be in conflict with others who force their opinions so the accommodator only has to yield in order to manage the conflict. Like the avoider, the accommodator refuses to dialogue or gather information.
The characteristics of an accommodator can be summed up by their ineffectiveness in groups, and their indecisive behavior/attitude; they are easily swayed, need to please everyone, and allow discussions to drift. Accommodators tend to have low personal goals and a high concern for their relationship with the person they are in conflict with.CompromisingThe compromising approach can be summarized with the phrase: “I’ll back off if you do the same.” The compromiser uses strategies such as bargaining, reducing expectations, dividing desired achievements so everyone gets something, and splitting the difference. Compromisers prefer to work with people who compromise or accommodate. The compromiser tolerates the exchange of views, although s/he finds this uncomfortable. Some characteristics of the compromiser are cautious but open, and s/he urges others not to be too open or outspoken. The compromiser has found a mid-way balance between concern for the relationship and meeting personal goals. The compromiser expects to win some arguments and lose others.CollaboratingThe final approach is the collaborating approach.
This can be summarized in the statement: “My preference is. What’s your choice?” The collaborator uses strategies such as gathering information, looking for alternatives, dialoguing openly, and also welcoming disagreements. Collaborators prefer to work with people who collaborate or compromise. They tend to focus on information gathering, and their characteristics generally include processing, dialoguing, being energized by controversy, and being open to change and growth.
Collaborators have a high concern for both personal goals and for relationships, and hope to result in a win - win situation.(3)When to Use Which ApproachCompetingThe competing approach is often appropriate when an emergency looms, when you are sure you are right and being right is more important than preserving relationships, or the issue is trivial and others do not really care what happens. This approach is inappropriate when collaboration has not yet been attempted, cooperation with others is important, it is used routinely for most issues, or when the self-respect of others is needlessly diminished.AvoidingThe avoiding approach is often appropriate when the issue is trivial, the relationship is insignificant, time is short and a decision is not necessary, and you have little power but still wish to block the other person. The avoiding approach is inappropriate when you care about the relationship and the issues involved, when avoidance is used habitually for most issues, when negative feelings may linger, and when others would benefit from caring confrontation.AccommodatingThe accommodating approach is best to use when you encounter an issue you do not really care about, you are powerless but have no wish to prevent the other person from achieving their goals, or you realize you are wrong. This approach is inappropriate when you are likely to harbor resentment as a result, and you use this habitually in order to gain acceptance (which will result in depression or a lack of self-respect).CompromisingThis approach is best used when cooperation is important but the time or resources are limited, when faced with a stalemate and the only way to overcome it is to settle for a less than ideal solution, and when efforts to collaborate will be misunderstood as forcing. This approach is least appropriate when finding the most creative solutions possible is essential, or when you cannot live with the consequences.CollaboratingCollaborating works best when the issues and relationship are both significant, cooperation is important, a creative end is important, and reasonable hope exists to address all the concerns.
This approach is often inappropriate when time is short, the issues are important, you are overloaded, and the goals of the other person are wrong.Conflict ResolutionAs previously stated, Conflict Resolution encompasses negotiation, mediation, and diplomacy. Diplomacy generally refers to international diplomacy in which experts in the field try and find a solution to a conflict that will be acceptable to both parties or countries on matters of economics, war, peace, etc.
Mediation is necessary when two or more parties, states, or individuals have a dispute about a certain topic, and employ impartial, professional mediators to try and improve communication and dialogue between the parties to come to an agreement. Negotiation is a form of dialogue used to resolve a conflict in which advantages and disadvantages are discussed to try and come to agreement, and persuade the other party to agree with you on the best possible outcome for your party, or both parties. Conflict Resolution can vary across cultures as the presence of a third party professional or third party trusted individual can be outside professionals, or inner religious or community leaders.
Find more information about:ISBN: 99531938OCLC Number:20422210Description:xxiv, 295 pages: illustrations; 23 cm.Contents:Part 1 The approach: the problem area; the human dimension; human needs theory; the environment of conflict; the influence of tradition; sources and trends in thought. Part 2 The political context: navigation points; the legitimization of authorities; multi-ethnic societies; the individual and society; constructive intervention. Part 3 Resolution: decision making; trends in conflict management and resolution; conflict resolution as problem solving; culture; acceptability. Part 4 Provention: from resolution to provention; second order change; the intellectual challenge.
Driver da placa de rede wireless aquario turbo wmm. Part 5 Conclusion: conflict resolution as a political system; summary assessment.Series Title:, 1.Responsibility:John Burton.